Rise of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Amisha Gupta

3rd Year BBA LL.B (Hons.)
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun

1. INTRODUCTION

In the mid-1950s, there was a time when artificial intelligence was officially recognized, which also lead to the initiation of numerous institutions[1] and programs[2] specialized in artificial intelligence which was not acclaimed at that period but being the most discussable matter in today’s scenario, AI[3] is made a basic element of many fields. The report[4] which includes forecasting, prevention and mitigation were furnished by various institutions and foundations[5] which gave detailed applications of artificial intelligence technologies as well as describes various solutions.

AI is an artificial system which consists of hardware and software of computer possessing quality of analyzing, learning and other unique features of technology which makes the work straight which is usually working, but now it has reached the top of the hill by its unique innovation like Alexa[6] and Siri[7] which is controlled by the voice, and works as the personal assistant who takes an oral order.

Before these household names, defense advanced research projects technology[8] accomplished its goals by concluding its street project in the 1970s who later fabricated Intelligent Assistants in the year 2003.

This whole development period is divided into different stages: 1950 to 1970s is the neural network stage which is the first phase of AI. During 1980 to 2010s, it was achieving more goals, and that phase is known as thinking machines. Currently, the third stage is prevailing which is named as deep learning.

2. IS AI BONE OR BANE? THE THREAT OF JOBLESS FUTURE OR BETTER JOB OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH RESKILLING AND UP-SKILLING

Machinery intelligence is inexorably advanced and of course, replaces human intelligence. It was believed by the advocate for the regulation of AI technologies[9], that AI can be dangerous as nuclear weapons as it will substitute the services of the human hence soon resulting in the extinction of human services. Humans are a box full of new ideas and new initiatives and when they physically work on the field, new ideas generated in their mind to do that work more creatively. But as per the AI, they need to follow the fixed procedure to complete their tasks therefore prevented from executing their proposal. Also, AI makes the work easier and somewhere reduces the need for a workforce as the work becomes faster and the single person can cover the wide range of work alone. By this point, we cannot say that AI is making the jobless future and increasing the unemployment rate but AI is making the economy or skilful and innovative. The work which previously took a day or two days to get completed now can be finished with one tap only. To cope up with this better working condition, workers need to get trained so that they can efficiently use this opportunity at the utmost level.

AI has made work much more accessible and stable as it has many times better memory holding power than human and can work far times better than human because it is a machine which can work without even resting. AI results in cost-cutting as every work can be channelized on a single tap. When the employee is hired, a handsome amount is spent on his training period but due to this high-tech system, the training can be provided through videos which can be replayed in case anyone missed out any important point. This unique model of providing training saves a lot of time, energy and prevents the trainers from repeating their training session after the arrival of each new employee. Also, before the training process, it even lightens the screening and interviewing process which is away only from a single click. Earlier, a huge amount of time and money was devoted to the screening and selection process of new employees because it is believed that the selection of productive employee is more necessary than saving the cost on this baseline process but today this important function is furnished at a high skill level where every required skill can be tested[10] at half the cost which was spent earlier.

A wide range of functions can be accessed with less time and with efforts as AI has a unique feature of accessing[11] the massive amount of information, scalability and spreading skills for completing the work efficiently and effectively. There are different platforms which are introduced under this category which mainly access the data at their depth and helps in adding the quality to work. AI adds intelligence to the product which improved the capabilities like in Siri[12] Improved the quality of Apple products. Also, bots and smart machines make the work easier.

It is concluded that AI can’t be termed as the bane because the unskilled labour won’t suffer from complete unemployment as there would still be physical and fieldwork in the economy even though the economy is completely bounded by AI. Also, as the AI will increase at an alarming rate, the awareness programs and training giving programs will be initiated by the government so that no one would be left without using this opportunity. Complete introduction of artificial intelligence in the economy will only increase the skill level in the work without affecting the jobs.

As there would be new technology, new features will be introduced and those new features will generate more demand and hence there will be better job possibilities through reskilling and up-skilling.

3. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN AI REGULATION

By overviewing the current situation, we can’t say that AI is a future technology because it is already here. Beginning with the most interesting gadget which is trending from youngsters to old age, for example, Amazon’s Alexa, goggle assistants, Apple Siri. AI is used in E-commerce, in banking and payments, supply chain logistics, marketing. These developments are needed to be controlled and these regulations are varied from country to country.

UK DEVELOPMENT: In July, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) introduced that it would be collaborating with the Alan Turing Institute in a year-long joint challenge designed to analyze the use of AI in the economic offerings zone. The FCA desires to deepen its know-how on this vicinity, with a focus on precise harms and safeguards.

The Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation (CDEI), an impartial advisory body, led by way of a board of specialists, tasked by using the UK Government to propose on records driven technology, released opinions into on-line focused on (the usage of facts-pushed technologies to goal content material, services and products to different people) and algorithmic bias within the spring and has currently posted meantime reviews of its findings.

OTHER COUNTRIES: The European Union is the most energetic in presenting new policies and rules, with current or proposed regulations in seven out of 9 classes of areas in which law is probably relevant to AI.  On the other hand, the US keeps a “mild” regulatory posture when it comes to laws around AI. A few States together with Arizona, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Washington, and other states have maintained an extra vigorous regulatory method.

The United States, Belgium, has already surpassed rules to prevent the use or development of LAWS.

Cognilytica explores the state-of-the-art prison and regulatory movements taken through nations around the arena throughout nine special regions: facial reputation and laptop imaginative and prescient, independent cars, AI-relevant information privacy, conversational structures and chatbots, lethal self-sufficient weapons structures (LAWS), AI ethics and bias, AI-supported selection making, malicious use of AI, and different regulations and legal guidelines referring to the use, creation, or interaction with AI structures. Each USA’s legal guidelines and regulations are defined and classified, and then evaluated as to whether or not the laws are in dialogue but now not implemented, are applied as permissive legal guidelines, or are applied as prohibitive laws.

France has expressed the ambition of taking a major function inside the development of self-sustaining cars, with an emphasis on protection. Furthermore, a few countries including the United States have a device where the vital or federal governments adjust a few aspects of motors and vehicle operation whilst nation, local, provincial, or local authorities have the energy to regulate other components.

 In 2018, the European Union delivered the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which has in flip obligated member states to hold a reasonably prohibitive regulatory technique for information privacy and utilization.

4. REGULATION OF AI IN INDIA

On February 1, 2018, Finance Minister Mr Arun Jaitley stated that the authorities think-tank NITI Aayog “might lead the countrywide programme on AI” and that “the authorities are set to help startups and centres of excellence with recognition of AI schooling and research activities.”

India currently does not have a comprehensive felony framework for records protection. On July 27, 2018, the Government of India’s Committee of Experts[13], launched a Draft Protection of Personal Data Bill. The Bill, like the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, establishes a set of rights but does not seem to include rights to shield against computerized selection-making. The Bill creates a framework to cope with harms springing up out of AI, however, does not empower the character to determine how their facts are processed and stay silent on the issue of ‘black box’ algorithms” and are “focused on setting the duty on agencies to prevent damage.

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has established 4 committees to help encourage research in AI. These four committees are stated below:

  • Committee on structures and statistics for AI
  • Committee on leveraging AI for figuring out National Missions in key sectors,
  • Committee on mapping technological competencies, key coverage enablers, skilling, re-skilling and R&D
  • Committee on cybersecurity, safety, felony and moral troubles.

In February 2018, the authorities of India hooked up a multi-stakeholder assignment pressure (“comprising the Government, Services, Academia, Industry, Professionals and Start-ups”) to take a look at the strategic and national safety implications of AI for India. The undertaking force submitted its report to the Minister of Defense on June 30, 2018.

The cutting-edge Motor Vehicle Act does not now appear to permit for automated vehicles (AVs) or AV checking out. However, amending the law, which changed into, exceeded inside the Lok Sabha (decrease house of Parliament) on April 10, 2017, however, remains pending earlier than the upper house chamber, the Rajya Sabha, and consists of an exemption.

State police forces across India are operating with private companies to install AI-assisted facial or image reputation algorithms and predictive policing equipment to locate and prevent crimes.

 

References:

[1]  University of Manchester .

[2]  By Newell and Simon .

[3]  Artificial intelligence .

[4]  The malicious use of artificial intelligence .

[5]  Like Stanford university, university of oxford and open AI.

[6] virtual assistant AI technology developed by Amazon.

[7]  By apple company- IOS .

[8]  DARPA.

[9]  Elon musk

[10]  Competitive exams, aptitude test.

[11]  Example: on linked, which is the pre-required social app for every professional.

[12] Ibid.

[13]  Termed as Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee.

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